Then infectious bacterial organism (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) can cause the anaplasmosis. Normally dogs get affected by this disease because of having bites of the deer tick. Also sometimes the brown dog tick can also cause this problem.
What is anaplasmosis
Now you might be wondering what really is this thing? It’s a bacterial disease which normally affects the dogs & there are two types of anaplasmosis incests.
The first one is Anaplasma phagocytophilium which takes place in the white cells of the blood
And the second type is the Anaplasma organism which can infect the platelets of your dog.
However, keep in mind that anaplasma normally happens in many dogs who are most likely to live in the Canada and theUnited States.
There are two types of anaplasmosis one s neutrophilic canine anaplasmosis and the other one is thromboctropic anaplasmosis. The first type of anaplasmosis normally caused by anaplasia pgagocytophilum and the second one occurs because of the A plates.
Symptoms of anaplasmosis?
If your dog is having anaplasmosis then you might notice that the dog is showing some discomfort and remains quiet most of the time. However, if you doubt that your dog is having this problem then it’s better to check for any kind of tick bites because this is the most common thing which causes anaplasmosis. Be careful whenever your dog shows some serious symptoms of anaplasmosis & it’s a good idea to take the dog to the vet right then. If any of these harmful insects bites your dog then just within one or two weeks your dog will show some symptoms. The most common signs of anaplasmosis are:
Blood in the nose
Pain or discomfort
How is it treated?
When it comes to treatment keep in mind that canine anaplasmosis is very much similar comparing with the tickbone infection like Lyne disease and the ehrlichiosis. Depending on the condition of your dog the treatment may take up to 30 days for your dog. However, the good news is the anaplasmosis can be treated very easily & the dogs tend to improve very quickly during the treatment procedure.
The prognosis for clinical recovery is known to be a great choice for the treatment
This might seem to be weird but it’s true that sometimes your dog can have a positive antibody test result but the dog is not having any problem of anaplasmosis or Lyme disease. Now the main thing is that many dogs seem to show Anaplasma phagocytophilum & this is what is responsible for the positive result, however sometimes a dog may have antibodies to A phagocytophilum while not having any clinical issues. Also sometimes dogs who are completely fit often suffer form persistent infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum. However, experts from all around the US have claimed that canine anaplasmosis is
Is anaplasmosis is contagious?
A very common question that many people ask that can they get anaplasmosis form their dog, however, the answer is that the phagocytophilum is known to be zoonotic pathogen which is why it can also affect human. Keep in mind that the direct transmission of it from people is very rare.
Whenever your vet confirms that your dog is having anaplasmosis then he will recommend you to have a complete tick control measures which you must follow. Also keep in mind that, whenever this happens it also means that there might be some other infected ticks in the entire surroundings of your home that can also affect other animals & human so you must take everything seriously before it’s too late.
Since we now know that anaplasmosis can be in two forms & both of them can turn pout to be a serious problem for you & the dog as well depending on the severity level.
Depending on the condition of your dog the vet may recommend you to follow some basic test
The vet might ask for the PCR test for determining the organism in the blood at the initial stage.
A (CBC) complete blood count or baseline blood work, urinalysis and chemistry examination might be recommended to determine the overall blood condition and other normal function (clotting abnormalities and anemia) of the organ.
IF the vet doubt that the dog is suffering from dehydration then he may also recommend Electrolyte test
Depending on the level of the severity sometimes vets are seen to recommend an antibody test to determine whether the dog is okay or not.
When the above tests are completed the vet may come to a conclusion & recommend some antibiotic (tetracycline or doxycycline). If the condition of your dog is not too severe then these antibiotic may show a positive result within two to five days. IF the condition of your dog is very serious & these antibiotic medications fail to work properly then the vet may ask you to repeat the complete blood count (CBC) test to determine whether these medications are working properly or not.
Clinical and laboratory
The unpleasing bacterial phase of the infection is mostly the clinical signs of the dogs. During the acute phase of this problem, it can take several days to determine the clinical signs.
Sometimes dogs are seen to suffer from the persistent, chronic and subclinical infections for more than six months.
Before your vet recommends a perfect treatment option he is most likely to go for some tests
IFA (Indirect fluorescent antibody)
PCR ( Polymerase Chain Reaction)
Elisa ( Enzyme Linked Immunoorbent Assay)
These tests are important because it allows the vet to make sure whether there are any bacteria in the blood or not. Sometimes it becomes difficult in the diagnostic procedure but these tests will be very useful for recommending the treatment.
If your vet has completed the blood count then he might find anemia & the anaplasmosis on the blood sample under the microchip. Also after taking all these tests, your vet may be concerned about the urinary tract infection & evaluate the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine by taking the urine tests. If the result is not positive after taking these tests then your vet may want to evaluate the kidney, pancreatic and liver function, by taking the chemistry tests. Also, the CBC tests (Complete Blood Count) might be required for evaluating the blood condition & finally an electrolyte test might be suggested for making sure whether the dog is having an electrolyte imbalance or dehydration.
TO determine the diagnosis procedure the vet may take the advantage of the light microscopy, also while the vet is progressing for the diagnosis procedure he will try to identify the morulae in circulation neutrophils in the peripheral blood & the synovial fluid.
The indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) tests & the ELISA, SNAP 4Dx might be necessary for the diagnosis procedure. The vet may take the organism of the disease as the main source of antigens while doing the IFA test. Also, the synthetic peptide relying on immunodominant p44 protein of the infection as the antigen might help the Snap 4Dx test.
Also, the PCR test is useful when it comes to diagnosing the entire condition of the dog. However, it might be very sensitive but it’s very useful for determining the peripheral blood for identifying A phagocytophilum.
When the vet is done with the diagnosis procedure he may recommend some antibiotic. The vet may suggest to give an oral dosage of 5 to 10 mg/kg twice everyday & also may suggest to continue it for 30 days. The good news is that you will notice some improvement very soon within a day or two. However, depending on the condition of your dog, the vet may also recommend you to provide supportive therapies like fluids & blood products.
A lot of people often ask that is there any vaccine available for this disease?
The answer is no.
Now a very important thing you must grasp that sometimes it is seen that many dogs may recover clinically but it becomes very difficult to make sure whether the dog is still infected or not. Sometimes dogs are seen to stop developing the antibodies to the organism in that case the organism is cleared from the body. Now, this is very rare, but still, your dog may show normal behavior however the dog may still show a positive test result & that doesn’t mean that your dog is having an active infection.
Always remember that prevention is always is better than the cure. If you want to protect your dog then keep in mind that the best idea to prevent this from happening is to staying aware of the tick & taking necessary actions from spreading before it’s too late. Every time your dog goes to any unknown place it’s better to check out the dog. There is another very helpful way you can take the advantage of is screening the dog regularly for any vector borne disease since these test will surely confirm you about everything you need to know.
Also, there are some weel known medications and products available in the market which will help you to prevent the tick attack. Also, you can take advantage of tick collars. On the other hand, you could also go with some natural products that have some useful important oil which contains eucalyptus, clove and lemongrass. Now, these oils work very effectively but the only bad side is that you will sense a very bad smell from these oils & you need to continue using these regularly. Regarding that, there is another bad side which is all dogs can’t endure these oils because some breed has problematic reaction with these oils. If you want to use these oils then don’t forget to read the whole instructions carefully.
Whenever you notice any tick in your dog’s body you may think that it’s an easy job but honestly, it’s better to take the dog to the vet because they are expert & you may make some mistakes while doing anything by yourself at the initial stage. Also, remember that ticks are quick to transmit the bacteria so you should take the dog to the vet before it’s too late.
You may use tweezers to remove the ticks & you need to be very careful while doing this because sometimes you may break the tick and his head can stay in the skin which literally can cause a serious infection over time. To get the best result it’s always suggested to take the dog to the vet, they will clean the affected area with the help of hydrogen peroxide or surgical cleaner.
Signs of anaplasmosis
Loss of appetite
Too much Scratching on the affected area
Matthew Frank was born and raised in the Bronx, New York. He was a reputed author of Pet Therapy Dogs and Pet Dog Cat.
Matthew is a regular author of this blog who is studying Veterinary medicine at Purdue University.